The Best Driving Techniques for Rally #21 of 22 – Pace Notes – Pace Note Overview WRC HD

Rallying is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. It is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points (special stages), leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points. Rallies may be won by pure speed within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages.

The term “rally”, as a branch of motorsport, probably dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other events used the term. Rallying itself can be traced back to the 1894 Paris–Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition (Concours des Voitures sans Chevaux), sponsored by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal, which attracted considerable public interest and entries from leading manufacturers. Prizes were awarded to the vehicles by a jury based on the reports of the observers who rode in each car; the official winner was Albert Lemaître driving a 3 hp Peugeot, although the Comte de Dion had finished first but his steam powered vehicle was ineligible for the official competition. This event led directly to a period of city-to-city road races in France and other European countries, which introduced many of the features found in later rallies: individual start times with cars running against the clock rather than head to head; time controls at the entry and exit points of towns along the way; road books and route notes; and driving over long distances on ordinary, mainly gravel, roads, facing hazards such as dust, traffic, pedestrians and farm animals.

The first of these great races was the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race of June 1895, won by Paul Koechlin in a Peugeot, despiting arriving 11 hours after Émile Levassor in a Panhard et Levassor.[3] Levassor’s time for the 1,178 km (732 mi) course, running virtually without a break, was 48 hours and 48 minutes, an average speed of 24 km/h (15 mph).[4] Just eight years later, in the Paris–Madrid race of May 1903, the Mors of Fernand Gabriel (fr), running over the same roads, took just under five and a quarter hours for the 550 km (340 mi) to Bordeaux, an average of 105 km/h (65.3 mph). Speeds had now far outstripped the safe limits of dusty highways thronged with spectators and open to other traffic, people and animals; there were numerous crashes, many injuries and eight deaths. The French government stopped the race and banned this style of event. From then on, racing in Europe (apart from Italy) would be on closed circuits, initially on long loops of public highway and then, in 1907, on the first purpose-built track, England’s Brooklands. Racing was going its own separate way.

One of the earliest of road races, the Tour de France of 1899, was to have a long history, running 18 times as a reliability trial between 1906 and 1937, before being revived in 1951 by the Automobile Club de Nice (fr).

Italy had been running road competitions since 1895, when a reliability trial was run from Turin to Asti and back. The country’s first true motor race was held in 1897 along the shore of Lake Maggiore, from Arona to Stresa and back.[8] This led to a long tradition of road racing, including events like Sicily’s Targa Florio (from 1906) and Giro di Sicilia (Tour of Sicily, 1914), which went right round the island, both of which continued on and off until after World War II. The first Alpine event was held in 1898, the Austrian Touring Club’s three-day Automobile Run through South Tyrol, which included the infamous Stelvio Pass. +++++

Racing Wheel : Thrustmaster T500RS + Shift TH8R
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The Volvo FH is a heavy truck range produced by Swedish Volvo Truck Corporation. Introduced in late 1993 as FH12 and FH16, production still continues with the now the second generation of FH range model lineup. FH stands for Forward control High entry where numbers denominate engine capacity in litres. The FH range is one of the most successful truck series ever having sold more than 400,000 units worldwide.[1]

In September, 2012, Volvo Trucks re-launched the Volvo FH with significant technology upgrades

In late 1993 Volvo had unveiled its replacement for the legendary F cabover series in production for almost 15 years.[3] The development of FH in what it appeared to be a clean sheet of paper design took seven long years. The development of the all-new design 12 litre engine with its overhead camshaft and electronic unit injectors technology placed Volvo among the world’s leading engine designers.

There were two models, FH12 and FH16 which shared common cabs and chassis and the FH12 immediately won “Truck of the year” award in 1994. The 16 litre engine, gearboxes and the driveline were carried over from previous generation albeit with many improvements and the host of additional features including all new Volvo engine management and its diagnostics for the D12A engine.

The cab produced at Umeå from hot dip galvanized, high tensile steel allowed for greater strength at thinner panels and box sections while reducing overall weight. The new FH cab was a logical progression from, for its days spacious but boxy F series cab to more aerodynamically efficient, with much improved ergonomics and much better seating unit while reducing overall weight of the cab by almost 30%.[4] The cabin was extensively tested in a wind tunnel to confirm shape aerodynamics properties to reduce air-drag thus improving fuel efficiency. The cab featured more sharply raked windscreen while wedge shaped sides rounded into front panel at much wider radius corners and the rear vision mirrors were also streamlined. The cabin was subject to the toughest cab impact test where procedure involved placing a 15 tonne static weight on the roof and one tonne pendulum striking at the cab rear wall and at the windscreen pillars, at the end of which the cab doors must be able to be opened.[5] In 1995 Volvo FH series became first heavy duty truck to be fitted with a SRS airbag to further improve passive safety

From the design angle the new D12A engine was one of the largest engine projects from Volvo Trucks since the 1950s at the time. The basic design was still based on direct injection in-line six diesel engine around 12 litres displacement but with entirely different fuel and valve systems when compared with previous Volvo engines. Built at the purpose-built facility at Skövde on a fully automated line where the bulk of the engine assembly is done by robots and the final engine dressing is carried out manually. The D12A was designed as a “world engine” to be able to meet the latest demands in high power output, low fuel consumption and lower emissions with its single OHC (overhead camshaft) design, four valves per cylinder and one centrally located electronic unit injector, integrated engine compression brake and two-piece, steel and aluminium pistons. The engine design left the door open for future upgrades in both power output and emission technologies. +++++
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